Day 1 :
- Brain Injury and Rehabilitation
University of Bucharest, ROMANIA
Professor Emeritus Radu Mutihac is Chair of Medical Physics, University of Bucharest, and works in Neuroscience, Neural Networks, Signal Processing, Microelectronics, and Artificial Intelligence. As postdoc/research associate/visiting professor/full professor he has conducted research at the University of Bucharest, International Centre for Theoretical Physics (Italy), Ecole Polytechnique (France), Institut Henri Poincaré (France), KU Leuven (Belgium). Data mining and exploratory analysis of neuroimaging time series were addressed during two Fulbright Grants in Neuroscience (Yale University, CT, and University of New Mexico, NM, USA). His research in fused biomedical imaging modalities was carried out at the Johns Hopkins University, National Institutes of Health, and Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, MD, USA.
The human brain is a large-scale complex network whose function relies on the interaction between its various regions. Recent studies of the human brain connectivity using resting-state/sleep functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and, more recently, diffusion tensor spectroscopic imaging (DSI) data have provided deeper insight on the organization of structural and functional brain networks that continuously share information. Brain's energy is largely consumed at rest during spontaneous neuronal activity (~20%), while task-related increases in metabolism energy are minor (<5%). Spontaneous ultralow-frequency fluctuations in BOLD-based rsfMRI signals (<0.01Hz) at the level of large-scale neural systems are not noise, but orderly and organized in a series of functional networks that permanently maintain a high level of temporal coherence among brain areas that are structurally segregated and functionally linked in resting state networks (RSNs). There is evidence suggesting that such signals permit to extract information about the connectivity and functionality of specific networks. It is also documented that functional connectivity reflects the underlying structural connectivity, which, at rest undergoes specific alterations in several neurological and psychiatric disorders. Human brain function imaged by rsfMRI allows accessing both sides of human mind-brain interface (subjective experience and objective observations). As such, functional neuroimaging moves onto new potential applications like reading the brain states, discriminate neurological dysfunctions (if any), artificial intelligence (AI), brain-computer interfaces (BCI), lie detection, and alike. The presentation aims to review and evaluate the most current approaches for early detection and classification of various forms of dementia, particularly among syndromes with relatively similar behavioral effects, as well as stages in a given syndrome, based on modifications of the brain connectivity at rest explored by rsfMRI, DTI, and DSI.
We have previously shown beneficial effects of manipulating the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) to improve functional outcome following spinal cord injury in rats. Furthermore, corresponding analyses of changes in gene expression at the injury site suggest that drug treatment altered several chemokines associated with infiltration of inflammatory cells. Compounds such as captopril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, and losartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) blocker, have been associated with beneficial regulatory control of the neuroinflammatory response in models of CNS disorders (e.g., Alzheimer disease).
Within the injured spinal cord, macrophages express distinct functional phenotypes. M1 phenotypes exhibit tissue destructive properties while M2 phenotypes promote tissue repair. Although our previous work showed that treatment with captopril or losartan did not affect the overall macrophage response to injury at the injury epicenter, it is possible that the functional profile of the macrophages was altered by drug treatment. The aim of the present study was to extend these initial data and determine whether losartan treatment promoted deviation toward an M2 phenotype in macrophages either at the site of injury or rostral and caudal to the injury site. We used immunohistochemical techniques to analyze histopathological changes in response to spinal cord injury in rats treated with losartan and examined the functional phenotype of macrophages entering the spinal cord after compression injury. Tissues were stained with an antibody that specifically binds to mannose receptor, type C, a scavenger receptor associated with a reparative M2 macrophage phenotype. Rostral and caudal to the site of injury (lesion margins) we observed a decrease in the M2 response over time from 7 days post-injury to 28 days post-injury with an associated increase in the M1 response. These data suggest that the beneficial effects of RAS inhibition following SCI are not due to promotion of an intraspinal M2 phenotype.
Hypothesis: We hypothesized that inhibition of RAS via administration of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) would alter the phenotype of recruited macrophages and other immune cells in spinal-injured rats.
Anesthetized female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a laminectomy at vertebral level T8 and were given SCI by lateral compression with modified forceps. Animals were treated daily with losartan (i.p.) and sacrificed at 7, 14, and 28 days post-injury.â€¨Immunohistochemistry
Spinal cords were excised at the above mentioned days and stored at -80°C in a OCT compound before being cut on a cryostat at 10 mm intervals. 0.1 M phosphate buffer was used as our primary buffer solution, and biotinylated horse anti- mouse (BHAM) was used as a secondary antibody. Myelin was evaluated using Eriochrome Cyanine histochemistry and sections were stained macrophage and T-cells using the following specific antibody clones:
GFAP: astrocyte intermediate filament proteinâ€¨OX-42: recognizes most macrophages via the integrin alpha M antigen which participates in various adhesive interactions of monocytes, macrophages, and granulocytes.â€¨CD-206: mannose receptor type C present on both dendritic cells and macrophages. Selectively expressed on M2 macrophages and associated with initiation of tissue repair
Immunohistochemistry for proportional area of stained tissue was measured using NIH ImageJ software. Images were imported into ImageJ and converted to 8-bit grayscale. The cross-section of the spinal cord was outlined and a thresholding tool was used to highlight the positively stained tissue. To determine the proportional area, the area of positively stained tissue was measured and divided by the total cross-sectional area of the spinal cord. The epicenter section was defined by the tissue section exhibiting the least amount of spared myelin. Sections were analyzed at 2 mm increments up to 6 mm rostral and 6 mm caudal to the epicenter for each animal. Glial cells were assessed using three antibodies that recognize different antigens: GFAP, OX42 and CD206.
GFAP: There was a significant effect of distance from the epicenter at 7 and 14 dpi, suggesting that the magnitude of GFAP expression differs across the rostrocaudal extent of the lesion. There was a significant effect of treatment with losartan observed at 28 dpi. Treatment with losartan decreased the magnitude of GFAP staining rostral and caudal to the epicenter, suggesting that inhibition of AT1R altered lesion dynamics and the induction of the astroglial scar.
OX-42: There was a significant effect of distance from the epicenter at 7, 14, and 28 dpi, suggesting that the macrophage response decreases as the distance from the epicenter increases. The overall macrophage response to injury was not affected by treatment with losartan, suggesting that beneficial effects on locomotor recovery were not due to changes in the magnitude of the inflammatory response to injury.
CD206: The relative expression of CD206 was similar at all rostrocaudal lesion locations at 7 and 28 dpi. Given that the overall magnitude of the macrophage response diminished at sites distal to the lesion epicenter, but expression of CD206 was maintained suggests that macrophages further from the injury epicenter are more likely to express an M2, or reparative phenotype. There was no effect of losartan on the proportion of M2 macrophages at any time point assessed.
These findings suggest an effect of losartan on the astroglial scar, but not on the macrophage response to injury. Thus, it is possible that the beneficial effects observed on locomotor recovery in this model, and neuroprotective effects described in other models of CNS injuries, are not due to modulation of neuroinflammation, but instead may be due to effects on endogenous glial cells.
Rehabilitation Clinic, Military Institute of Medicine in Warsaw, Poland
Lawson is recently retired as Associate Dean for Health Disparities and professor of psychiatry, at the Dell Medical School, University of Texas, Austin, where he also held appointments in psychology and pharmacy. He was also Professor of psychology at Huston-Tillotson where he was Director of Community Health Programs at the Sandra Joy Anderson Community Health and Wellness Center and also the Director of Health Disparities Policy and Research at Austin Travis County Integral Care. He received a PhD in Psychology from the University of New Hampshire and MD from the Pritzker School of Medicine University of Chicago, did his residency at Stanford University and a fellowship at the National Institute of Mental Health. He has held faculty positions at the University of Illinois, Urbana, University of California, Irvine, Vanderbilt University, University of Arkansas, and Howard University. He has held numerous senior positions and received national recognition including past President of the DC chapter of Mental Health America, Past President of the Washington Psychiatric Society, past Chair of the Section of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences of the National Medical Association, and past president of the Black Psychiatrists of America. He received the American Psychiatric Foundation Award for Advancing Minority Mental Health, the Solomon Carter Fuller Award by the American Psychiatric Association, the Sigma XI the scientific honor society and Alpha Omega Alpha, the medical honor society, the National Alliance for the Mentally Ill Exemplary Psychiatrist Award and Outstanding Psychologist Award, the Jeanne Spurlock Award from the American Psychiatric Association, and the E.Y. Williams Clinical Scholar of Distinction Award from the NMA, and the George Winokur Clinical Research Award from the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists. He has over 200 publications, and is the editor in chief of the Journal of the National Medical Association. He has continuously received federal, industry, and foundation funding to address mental and substance abuse disparities. He has incorporated to address to use research, education, and clinical care to reduce racial disparities in mental health outcomes.
Close head injuries have been recognized as an important public health and issues that in the past was ignored or minimized in some settings. In the United States combat veterans returning to the community often were unable to function effectively due to a spectrum of residue effects including frank neuropsychological impairment, attentional problems, irritability, and a host of executive function issues. More recently such issues have gotten publicity in the National Football League where veterans of the game retire with a host of neuropsychological consequences. Public awareness campaigns have led to various programs for screening and recognizing these individuals. Moreover various interventions have been introduced including the use of potential cognitive enhancing agents, educational and employment accommodation, peer support programs. A history of head injury is often found in individuals in the correctional system. Part of the problem may be related to the socioeconomic status of individuals in the system, but it may related to why people are incarcerated in the first place. Those with known mental disorders are overrepresented in the correctional system. It should not be a surprise that individuals with neuropsychological impairments would be over represented. We will present cases showing how unrecognized impairment may lead to more frequent incarcerations and failure to abide by rules of parole. We will discuss potential cognitive enhancing agents that may be effective and the use of odorants and nasal stimulation to improve function.
Psychiatric Hospital of Havana, Cuba
There is increasing evidences that favor the prenatal beginning of schizophrenia. These evidences point toward intra-uterine environmental factors that act specifically during the second pregnancy trimester producing a direct damage of the brain of the fetus . The current available technology doesn't allow observing what is happening at cellular level since the human brain is not exposed to a direct analysis in that stage of the life in subjects at high risk of developing schizophrenia. Methods. In 1977 we began a direct electron microscopic research of the brain of fetuses at high risk from schizophrenic mothers in order to finding differences at cellular level in relation to controls. Results. In these studies we have observed within the nuclei of neurons the presence of complete and incomplete viral particles that reacted in positive form with antibodies to herpes simplex hominis type I [HSV1] virus, and mitochondria alterations . Conclusion. The importance of these findings can have practical applications in the prevention of the illness keeping in mind its direct relation to the aetiology and physiopathology of schizophrenia. A study of the gametes or the amniotic fluid cells in women at risk of having a schizophrenic offspring is considered. Of being observed the same alterations that those observed previously in the cells of the brain of the studied foetuses, it would intend to these women in risk of having a schizophrenia descendant, previous information of the results, the voluntary medical interruption of the pregnancy or an early anti HSV1 viral treatment as preventive measure of the later development of the illness.
Dr Hadi Eltonsi a medical graduate trained in group psychotherapy, hypnosis, silva mind control, NLP, Reiki Master, Pranic Healing,Life Couch, Mantra Yuga meditation among others courses for psychic powers, family constellation thru his medical study and practice then as a diplomat and Ambassador. He performed many TV, Radio interviews and seminars apart of two short American films about his work or inspired by his skills which were shown in international film festivals, the second got an award in Venice 2017
Statement of the problem: clients receiving psychotherapy require several sessions even if with drugs and use of will power over time.
Purpose of the treatment: Achieving immediate non medicinal effortless painless healing without complications. For personality development, relief of neuorotic disease, psychosomatic symptoms and diseases, treating emotional obesity and smoking.
Method: After joint analysis with Client and definition of psychological and physical goals of treatment, the healer as a trained behavioral, cognitive and logo psychotherapist arrives with client to a new corrected understanding of the case and roots of conflicts in childhood, taking around 2 hours, then in less than an hour performs non verbal interpersonal hypnosis with transfer of energy and telepathy to client till deep sleep when he implants the required personality , ideas, emotions, motives and attitudes into the subconscious embodying the required state. The subconscious and conscious mind will have same agreed upon analysis and targets for immediate results in that session of 3 hours
Results: The healer got patent in Egypt 2016 for his discovery of The Immediate Healing for Personality Development and for mentioned purposes. Up till now treating more than 700 cases aging between 12 and 80 years with relief of more than 80% of cases either totally or mostly.
Conclusion: immediate non medicinal revolutionary life transforming healing for a wide spectrum of cases achieving higher grades of maturity, insight, harmony and efficiency saving client time, effort, interests and complications. Also used to maturate community leaders to be a trouble shooter model efficient leaders with team spirit.
Assam University India
Shouhartha Choudhury has completed his B.Tech and M.Tech in Bioinformatics from India and now pursuing integrated pre-Ph.D. research in School of Life Sciences, Department of Biotechnology, Assam University, Silchar-788011
The present study investigated OLIG (Oligodendrocyte lineage gene) induce differentiation of neural progenitors and express oligodendrocyte and putative immature progenitor cells in the adult central nervous system. The murine bHLH transcription factors OLIG1 and OLIG2 essential for oligodendrocyte development found to chromosome 21. OLIG1 participate oligodendrogenesis and OLIG2 express in immature neuron and multipotential glia in the embryonic olfactory neurons. OLIG2 a marker of diffuse glioma and faithfully restricted to the normal oligodendroglia in human brain. In rodents, expression heterogeneity demonstrated OLIG1 and OLIG2 characteristics of various glial tumors. OLIG3 is a third gene of OLIG family detected in the dorsal neural tube in midbrain, hindbrain, and spinal cord. In this study, we curated literature-derived information of the OLIG family and their specific bHLH domain in genomic data. We accumulate eukaryotic organism i.e. Homo sapiens and Mus musculus and performed comparative and functional analysis. The complete bHLH transcription factor data analysis suggested number of OLIG genes and their domain, motifs, phylogeny, chromosome location and gene expression. In this study, we performed bioinformatics and computational techniques to the current knowledge of OLIG family of bHLH transcription factor.
- Brain Disorders and Therapy
Asia Global Goodwill Ambassadors Singapore
MS. SUCHI is an experienced International Pre School Principal/Manager who picked up Laughter exercises from many coaches around the world. She then designed ‘Laughter Therapy' which is being used in many places such as hospitals and Senior Activity Centres. She provides individual and group therapy in educational and home settings.
A former Manager / Trainer is now engages in building social awareness about Holistic approach for recovery. Be it Depression, Anxiety caused by physical or emotional pain, Death in the family and the harm the unhappiness brings to people, families and communities. Her aim is to encourage people to seek help early and get on the path to recovery. Her works has been featured in local press, TV and Radio and has been an invited speaker at various community clubs and educational Institutions. She has also been awarded by MINDS and various community clubs in recognition of her social work.
Statement of the Problem: There is a lack of awareness about what happy hormones are, how to use positive words to feel energetic and what can be done to get happy hormones. People tend to feel unhappy for multiple reasons and neuropathic pain adds on Stress levels of not only the patient but the caregivers as well. Being in pain leads to feeling depressed and anxious in some cases.
Methodology & Theoretical Orientation:
Review of Books and Research shows that getting a dosage of happy hormones will not only ease slight pain of the patient but feeling happy will also have a positive impact on the recovery of the patient. Adopting Laughter therapy and getting hormones which makes one feel good will help many to recover from Neuropathic pain /Long term sadness caused by having grief, Anger or Resentment, Depression & Anxiety.
Findings: One needs to work on his/her energies using Laughter Therapy which is a positive approach for not having Depression & Anxiety caused by Neuropathic pain. The therapy can be used as a Holistic way to recovery.
Conclusion & Significance: The Laughter therapy which includes ways to get the dosage of happy hormones promotes overcoming Depression & Anxiety caused by Neuropathic pain, is a fun way to manage pain. Repeated sessions to be conducted to remind patients that life while having pain or during the recovery should go beyond just seeking medical and counselling help and also include rebuilding Spiritual, Physical, Emotional, Relational and Mental health. The model has been put together from for testing in many settings including hospitals, elderly homes and senior citizen centres. This is not a research book or paper. It is just an effort to demystify the help available for Depression & Anxiety caused by pain. It is an attempt to motivate and encourage people to seek help and take a simple approach to remember and work on all aspects of their recovery.
- Psychology & Neuroscience
Beni-Suef University, Egypt
Dr Ahmed Allam has his expertise in the field of neurogenesis and neurobehaviors especially in the newborns. Many of his publications and works focus on the damage which produced in the brain regions due to perinatally toxins exposure during development and how to repair this damage and reduce its hazards and how mothers could be avoided from these teratogenic factors even tough toxins or manners. Also, Dr Allam has some expertise in the following area Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Biological Sciences, Neuroscience, Medicine, Chemistry, Environmental Science, Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics Immunology.
The present study aimed to elucidate the abnormalities in the development of rat brains and behaviours after drinking desalinated seawater prenatally. Three types of drinking water were employed as an experimental probe (bottled water, filtered desalinated seawater and tap desalinated seawater) to investigate neurobehavioral and morphological changes in the development of pup rats. Female rats from each group were administered water from their birth until gestation and lactation. The 1st and 2nd generation pups were divided into three groups: Group C, mothers and pups administered with bottled drinking water (the control group); Group F, mothers and pups administered with filtered drinking water; Group T, mothers and pups administered with unfiltered desalinated seawater (tap water). Morphological changes (CNS aberration) and neurobehavioral changes were studied. The aberrations recorded in the brain regions (cerebellum, cerebrum, medulla oblongata) and spinal cord of rat’s newborns from groups T and F may be due to oxidative stress in these tissues such as reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation, peroxidase and super oxide dismutase. In conclusion, drinking desalinated seawater for a long time may cause teratogenic effects in the development of New-born rats.
Rehabilitation Clinic, Military Institute of Medicine in Warsaw, Poland
- Neurological Disorders
University of Barcelona. NeNe Foundation, Spain
Dr. Garcia-Alix Alfredo, MD, PhD, completed his doctorate in 1990 at the Autonoma University of Madrid. He began his training as a pediatrician in 1982 at the Children's Hospital La Paz in Madrid and spent a year and half (1988-1989) training in Neonatal Neurology in the Department of Neurology of the Children's Hospital of San Luis, University of Washington. In addition to work in the field of neonatal neurology since1990, at present he is the president of NeNe Foundation, a non-profit organization that seeks to promote the development of neonatal neurology. He has been associate professor of pediatrics at Autonoma University in Madrid and actually he is associate professor at the University of Barcelona. He has published more than 100 articles registered in the Pubmed and is an honorary professor at the Universidad de Concepcion, Chile.
Symptomatic Neonatal Arterial Ischemic Stroke (NAIS) refers to a perinatal ischemic stroke (revealed by brain imaging) with clinical signs; mainly focal seizures. NAIS is surprisingly common, affecting near 1 in 4,000 neonates at birth and produces a significant morbidity and long-term neurologic deficits.
Methods. We performed a multicenter observational prospective study in which 66 neonates more than 35 weeks of gestational age and NAIS were included between 2006-2016. The objectives of this study were: 1) to investigate the pathogenic factors of NAIS (particularly prothrombotic factors), 2) to generate a distribution map based on early MRI data, 3) to analyze the relationship between CSF-NSE levels and brain lesions in neuroimaging (topology and volume), as well as the correlation between both biomarkers with the outcome at two years of age.
To examine the role of family history, maternal diseases and thrombophilia, 129 controls were recruited prospectively. The correlation between cortico-subcortical lesions and outcomes in motor, cognitive function and language function and epilepsy was performed by means of voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping technique.
Results. Thrombophilia, maternal diseases and thromboembolic events in the families did not differ between cases and controls.
The region posterior to the central sulcus was the most frequently affected in NAIS (71%) and this explains the reason that functional alterations related to language were the most prevalent outcome (40%).
CSF-NSE appears to be an early biomarker after an NAIS due to there was a relation between size, arterial territory of the infarct, and neurodevelopment at two years of age. Outcome at two years correlated well with infarct volume and topology. While descending corticospinal tracts diffusion-weighted MRI signal is predictive of motor outcome, cognitive function was mainly correlated with Stroke volume, being the most important cognitive predictor the stroke involving main branch MCA
Russian Ilizarov Scientific Centre, Russian Federation
Professor G. Dyachkova has 45 years of experience in traumatology and orthopedics, radiology. With her participation, 15 new diagnostic methods based on multislice and magnetic resonance tomography were developed, comprehensive studies were carried out to study the quality of bone in patients with diseases of the musculoskeletal system, which made it possible to increase the effectiveness of radiology diagnostics in justifying Ilizarov treatment methods for patients with injuries and bone diseases, improve the quality of life of patients. Professor Dyachkova published more than 350 papers on various aspects of radiology, the organization of health care, and received 18 patents for new methods of treatment and diagnostics.
Statement of the Problem: Congenital pseudoarthrosis of the tibia (CPT) remains one of the most complicated and rare condition, and this pathology still remains the subject of focus for many specialists, because complicated long and multi-stage surgical treatment and poor outcomes in 20-50% of cases. To study changes of bone and soft tissues in patients with congenital pseudoarthrosis by MSCT and MRI.
Methodology & Theoretical Orientation:: The work is based on the study of results of treatment and examination of 25 patients with CPT, among them 11 were females, 14–males. In 93% of patients CPT was located in the lower third of the tibia. In most of the cases, etiology of CPT was associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 (46%), in 23%-fibrous dysplasia and in 31%-was idiopathic. We studied condition of bone and soft tissues at the site of congenital pseudoarthrosis of the tibia before commencing treatment, using radiographic methods- multi slice computed tomography (MSCT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to make prognosis of treatment outcome and recurrence of the disease.
Findings: 25 patients with congenital pseudoarthrosis of the tibia (CPT) in the age group 8 to 40 years were examined by above mentioned radiographic methods, multi slice computed tomography (MSCT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before treatment and after recurrence. The peculiarities and changes in structure of tibial and fibular cortex, periosteum and muscles at the site of pseudoarthrosis. We derived at complex findings and changes that cause recurrence, of pseudarthrosis after deformity correction, or treatment. We developed criteria for evaluation of bone quality in patients with CPT.
Conclusion & Significance: Structural changes in the soft tissue and the bone at the site of CPT, detected by MRI and MSCT, allow for rather precise interpretation of condition of bone, periosteum, muscles during various stages of treatment and this information can be used to choose appropriate technique and methods of treatment.
- Stem Cell Therapies
Instituto do CÃ©rebro - Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN)
Areas of interest: Desenvolvimento do córtex cerebral, neurogênese adulta e terapias celulares
Astroglial cells are abundant in the injured central nervous system and have been proposed as an endogenous source of cells for neuronal repair. Notably, genetic manipulation of these cells using exogenous genes, micro RNAs or small molecules has been shown to induce their phenotypic conversion into induced neuronal cells (iN), capable of integrating into the brain circuitry following in situ transplantation. Recent work in my laboratory has contributed to unravel the potential of astroglial cells isolated from distinct central nervous system structures. Using astroglial cells isolated from the neocortex, cerebellum and retina, we could show the widespread potential of these cells to be lineage reprogrammed into iNs. Importantly, we show that astroglia isolated from different regions differentiate into iNs with phenotypes resembling that of endogenous neurons, suggesting that region-specific astroglia are prompted to regenerate neurons of the same region. However, integration of astroglia-derived iNs in the adult mouse brain is limited as compared to the post-natal brain, indicating that further improvements are required towards the development of astroglia-based therapies.